Cornelis de Houtman was the first Dutchman to reach Sumatra and Bantam in 1596. United East India Company of the Netherlands, formed in March 1605 by the Charter of Dutch Parliament, had the powers to wage wars, make treaty and build forts. Founded their first factory in Masaulipatam in Andhra in 1605. Subsequently they won over Portuguese & emerged as most dominant European trade power.

Pulicat was their main center in India, later replaced by Nagapattinam. Dutch carried indigo manufactured in the Yamuna valley and Central India, textiles and silk from Bengal, Gujarat and the Coromandel, saltpetre from Bihar and opium and rice from the Ganga valley.

In 1623, a treaty between British and Dutch → Dutch withdrew their claim from India and British from Indonesia 1650 (17th century), English began to emerge as big colonial power in India. Anglo Dutch rivalry lasted for 70 years, during which Dutch lost their settlements to British one by one.

The Dutch were not much interested in empire building in India; their concerns were trade. In any case, their main commercial interest lay in the Spice Islands of Indonesia from where they earned a huge profit through business.

Decline in India- The defeat of the Dutch in the Anglo-Dutch rivalry and the shifting of Dutch attention towards the Malay Archipelago. In Battle of Bedara (1759), the English defeated the Dutch.

After prolonged warfare, both the parties compromised by which the British agreed to withdraw all their claims on Indonesia, and the Dutch retired from India.

Dutch established factories in:

🔸Masulipatnam (1605),

🔸Pulicat (1610),

🔸Surat (1616),

🔸 Bimlipatnam (1641),

🔸Karikal (1645),

🔸Chinsurah (1653),

🔸Cassimbazar (Kasimbazar),

🔸Baranagore, Patna, Balasore, Nagapatnam

(1658) and Cochin (1663).

(It covered both Eastern and western Coasts).


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