Which one of the following is a covalent compound?

  1. Calcium oxide
  2. Sodium nitride
  3. Silicon carbide
  4. Zinc sulphide


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  1. Covalent Bonds:

    • Covalent bonds are mostly found in organic compounds.
    • They are non-metallic weaker bonds.
    • Compounds having covalent bonds occur in liquid or gaseous states if in solid, they are soft solids.
    • They are bad conductors of heat and electricity.
    • Compounds having covalent bonds have low melting and boiling points.
    • Covalent compounds are insoluble in water and organic solvents.
    • Covalent bonds are of two types – sigma (strong) and pi (weak).

    Important Points

    Calcium Oxide:

    • Its formula is CaO
    • It is an ionic compound.
    • It is a white or greyish white solid substance.
    • It can absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere easily,

    Sodium Nitride:

    • Its formula is Na3N
    • It is an ionic compound.
    • It has a gap that is usually found in semiconductors.
    • It is formed from metal to non-metal interactions.

    Silicon Carbide:

    • Its formula is SiC.
    • Silicon carbide has a strong covalent bond between them.
    • It is also known as the covalent network solid.
    • It has oxidation resistance and thermal shock resistance.

    Zinc Sulphide:

    • Its formula is ZnS
    • It is an ionic compound.
    • It is usually black in colour due to various impurities and is thus used as a pigment.
    • It is used as a window in optics.
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